If you actually want to do this, which sounds great, then it probably makes sense to try to get the data into some sort of usable format, and choose a format that everyone can easily obtain. As a starting point, it would be helpful to have, for each match, the information contained on the final scoreboard.
At a minimum, I feel like you need to detail your ladder points before the match, your win streak going into the match, your total W/L record before the match, the division and ranking of every player in the match, the final match score, your score, your teammate's scores, your kills, your deaths, the length of the match, how many ladder points you gained/lost, and when/whether you move up divisions.
This lets you compute:
-your score per minute for the match (and cumulatively)
-your score as a percentage of the total team score
-your K/D for the match (and cumulatively).
If we get enough data, a pattern may emerge where some or all of these are correlated to the points you earn and/or to when you move up a rank.
My own personal guess is that how many points you earn in a win, or lose in a loss, is based on both the relative strength and weakness of your teammates and opponents, and might also be based on your own score relative to your teammates scores in the round.
I think that moving up/down a division is based on your W/L ratio, possibly weighted by the strength and weakness of your opponents for each win or loss, and may also be based on your SPM.